Byzantine in Private tours novations elsewhere included the city walls (seepages 88-90) erected early in the fifth century by Theodosius II. These also made use of vaulting to support the floors in the 192 towers that punctuated their length. Vaults and domes underground rather than above ground were employed to create Constantinople’s distinctive cisterns, of which there were more than 30 (74).
Post Justinian, the Byzantine empire was to continue for close to another 800 years Ephesus day tours , during which time architectural styles evolved further. No emperor ever tried to match Justinian’s audacious cathedral. Instead, later structures tended to be more modest in size and more harmoniously proportioned. Decoration came to play a larger part. For all its spatial grandeur Haghia Sophia is dull, dull, dull on the outside, whereas surviving later churches such as St Saviour in Chora (Kariyer Mosque; seepage 90) and the 12th-century Church of the Pantocrator (now the Zeyrek Mosque; seepage 85) employ multiple domes, narthexes and apses executed in alternating bands of brick and roughly dressed stone. Glazed pottery set into the external walls forms friezes that echo interior mosaics and tiling, which flourished in the later Byzantine period following the miserable repressions of the Iconoclastic era (see page 11). These buildings are thoroughly charming and deserve much greater attention than the few visitors they generally receive.